Law Enforcement Forces
The traditional law enforcement is carried out through Khassadars and Levies. However, the Frontier Corps and Frontier Constabulary have an important role in maintenance of peace and security in these areas.
In order to spread the benefits over the commonality and to involve a larger portion of the tribes it was decided to introduce the system of Khasadari in 1921 by the British government. This was another step taken along with raising of the scouts for reducing in the military commitments in an area, and at the same time extending the areas of control through tribal and territorial responsibility. Khasadar force were raised, in each agency, from various tribes in the agency on quota system fixed for Qaums (Tribes) who are responsible for maintenance of law and order in respective areas. They carry their own weapons but are paid by political authorities. They are appointed and working under control of Political Agent. The recruitment is made in the ratio of their tribal distribution which is known as Nikkat.
The Khassadars were enlisted from amongst the tribes who were designated by the local Maliks, and enrolled for the purpose of guarding roads and providing safe passage to travelers. Their most important role is as a medium of communication, or a link, between the administration and the tribes. Khassadars provides their own weapons. Khassadars performs the following functions:
• Protection of roads
• Manning the pickets, patrolling roads and protecting train journeys
• Guarding government installations and protecting developmental works
• Arresting the criminals, anti-social elements and proclaimed offenders
• Maintaining law and order, mob control, recovery of narcotics and contraband, destruction of illicit crops
• Escorting travelers, ceremonial guards
• Service of summons
• Detection and prevention of crimes; intelligence and feedback from the tribes
• Traffic control
• Recovery of government dues
• Security of high level dignitaries, and all sorts of errands as ordered by the administartion
A khassadar is paid a salary by the government and his services is not pensionable. He is provided with a pair of shoes and a uniform every year. Due to lack of training, and a service structure or fringe benefits at par with other forces, he has a low level of motivation. In fact he also owes his allegiance to the Malik who got him employment, and also the tribe because of the system of Nikat under which he got employed.
The Khassadars are mostly illiterate and poor. Their selection is based on nomination by the Maliks and obviously without a regard to merit. Every agency had its own rules and conventions for the Khassadar service. No induction or in-service training is imparted. The government has to consider seriously to remove snags from the performance of a Khassadar.
Every tribal agency has the Khassadari system; however, there is also another similar force under the command of the Political Agent, called Levies in Bajaur, Kurram and Orakzai Agencies, which is rather better organized. The first of these Levies, Malakand Levies was created in 1895, while Orkazai Levies was enlisted in 1973, Bajaur Levies and Kurram Levies were enlisted in 1981. There are currently 16,828 permanent khassadars in FATA.
The main difference between Khassadars and Levies is that the Khassadar is hereditary and the incumbents carry their own weapons for the duty, whereas Levies are provided weapons by the Government. They are recruited on merit from amongst the indigious tribes. Unlike Khasadar force, levy force is properly trained. We first come across the names of Zhob Levy (Dec. 1889), Malakand Levies, Dir Levies etc. Of the seven tribal agencies, only Kurram , Orakzai and Bajaur maintain levies forces.
Levies and khassadars, recruited on a tribal basis, fall under the federal government’s control, and are appointed by the PA who is also their commanding officer. While levies are provided small arms and limited ammunition, khassadars use their own weapons. Levies, who are marginally better armed, are similarly underpaid and inadequately trained, with a monthly salary of Rs. 3,500 (roughly $43). There are currently 6,779 permanent levies in FATA.
Functions, Responsibilities and Duties of Levies
Functions, responsibilities, duties of Levies are as under:
• Maintenance of Law and Order within the territorial jurisdiction of their respective tribes.
• To trace and detect crimes and anti state activities.
• To wield the loyalties of the tribes with the Government.
• Anti smuggling and anti sabotage work.
• Patrolling roads, trains.
• Protection of vital installation, railway tracks, bridges, Government buildings, telephone lines, Government offices etc.
• Escorting Government officials and security of VIPs while touring or passing through tribal areas.
• Act as a deterrent in tribal disputes.
• Arrest of proclaimed offenders and anti social element.
• Guarding of the pickets.
• Checking of traffic offences.
• Recovery of Government dues.
The Frontier Corps
The Frontier Corps (also known as Scouts or Militia) is an important paramilitary force, with a history of more than a hundred years. It has been the main force for guarding the frontier Agencies for the watch and ward of the tribal areas. As the tribes were armed to the teeth and made frequent incursions into the settled districts for raid, the British felt the necessity of raising a force which was more mobile than the regular soldiers and could act under the civil authority.
FC was organized in its present form from a number of separate units which were raised initially as local political units, then called “Irregulars”. The regular army at Peshawar was much too big for lesser semi-police work, and almost at once was formed the Punjab Irregular Force, later becoming the Punjab Frontier Force. This force was transferred in 1849 to the Frontier.
The demarcation of Durand Line increased the responsibilities of the British. By that time, they had already established Khyber Agency in 1878, Kurram Agency in 1892 and the Malakand, North and South Waziristan Agencies were established in 1895-96. These administrative agencies in the area had their own units of Militia and Scouts, namely, the Khyber Rifles (1878), Zhob Militia (1883) the Kurram Militia (1892), Tochi Scouts (1894), Chagai Militia (1896). South Waziristan Scouts (1900) and Chitral Scouts (1903).
Scouts units were raised for each tribal Agency. They had officer from the regular army units. No more than one third of the enlistees could be from the tribal territory. The main duties of the Scouts include maintenance of control in the tribal area and to prevent raids into the districts.
The Frontier Corps NWFP is also a Civil Armed Force under the Administrative control of the Ministry of Interior consisting of twelve Units known as Corps with a total of 46 Wings. It also has a training center which looks after induction and training of recruits. The overall authorized strength of the Force is about 35,070 personnel (all ranks). The force remained under Ministry of Defence till 1974 and thereafter it was transferred to the Ministry of Interior.
Units of Frontier Corps NWFP include Kurram Militia, Tochi Scouts, Chitral Scouts,Khyber Rifles, South Waziristan Scouts, the Bajaur Scouts (1961), Mahsud Scouts (1937, 1944), Mohmand Rifles, the Thall Scouts (1948), Shawal Rifles and Dir Scouts (1970) etc.
The Frontier Corps Baluchistan is another Civil Armed Force under the Administrative control of the Ministry of Interior. It was raised in 1974 as a result of bifurcation of old FC that used to protect/ guard external frontiers of Pakistan (NWFP and Baluchistan). The Force consists of 15 Units known as Corps with a total of 41 Wings. The Corps units have been historically named according to the name of the origin of the areas or the general area where these were initially raised e.g. Kharan Rifles, Zhob Militia, etc.
Units of Frontier Corps Baluchistan include Zhob Militia, Chaghai Militia, Sibi Scouts, Kalat Scouts(1965), Makran Militia, Kharan Rifles, Pishin Scouts(1946), Maiwind Rifles, Ghazaband Scouts, Bambore Rifles, Loralai Scouts etc.
FC formations are commanded by Army Officers posted on secondment by the GHQ. To perform the role assigned to FC NWFP during peace time and emergency, the units carry out their speicified role and functions in their assigned respective areas. The task assigned to this force during peace and war are:
• Defending the western border of Pakistan.
• Providing security to the lines of communication and carrying out patrolling in tribal belt to maintain the writ of the government.
• Conducting raids to recover kidnapped personnel, stolen property and to apprehend proclaimed offenders from tribal areas.
• Aiding civil law enforcing agencies in conduct of anti narcotics and weapons recovery operations.
• Operating under the Army Headquarters (GHQ) during an emergency or war.
• Supplementing the local LEAs elsewhere in the country (internal security duties) in terms of uncontrollable unrest, like a sectarian clash.
• The Frontier Corps serves under the operational command of the Governor in his capacity as the Agent to the federal government when the provincial government or other competent authorities call on the FC to come to the aid of Civil Forces.
The Frontier Constabulary
The Frontier Constabulary is a sort of police force and is officered by police officers. It is employed on the lines between the tribal agencies and settled districts. Previously this used to be known as Border Militia and this is even now known as militia by the common people. They are liable to home services only and in case of emergency, assist the regular army in operations.
Frontier Constabulary was created as an independent Civil Armed Force, under the provisions of Frontier Constabulary Act, 1915. under this Act, Frontier Constabulary Rules 1958 were framed. This force is also under the administrative control of the Ministry of Interior. From an operational point of view, the functioning of this force is supervised by the Home departments of the respective provincial governments. The Frontier Constabulary, an armed police force, also operates in a small area bordering FATA and the settled districts. The NWFP police does not have jurisdiction over FATA’s agencies or the Frontier Regions. Originally, it was aimed at stopping incursions and raids from the tribal areas. Now, its original function has been overshadowed by an increasing involvement in the internal security duties and protection of vital installation as well as embassies.
The force is commanded by a grade 21 officer of the Police Services of Pakistan designated as Commandant FC who is assisted by a Deputy Commandant who is a BPS-20 officer and two Principal Staff Officers of BPS-18/19. The Frontier Constabulary has its own administrative districts and in each district there is one District Officer of BPS-18/19 who is assisted by Assistant District Officers.
At present Frontier Constabulary has 403 platoons and in each platoons the strength varies from 43 to 48. The overall strength comes to nearly 17,500 personnel. The Frontier Constabulary has been assigned the following duties:
• To guard the border between tribal and settled area.
• To stop tribal incursions in individual cases or in the form of gangs.
• To check outlaws and their evil designs in the area.
• To stop kidnapping and checking on tribal disputes on the administrative borders.
• To act as a second line of defense in times of grave emergency.
• To assist the local administration in times of need (internal security).
• To control and eliminate poppy cultivation and growth.
• To check trafficking of narcotics, illegal weapons and smuggling.
• To perform any other duties assigned by the government.
President Gen. Pervaz Musharraf plans to implement a Four-tier Security System in FATA
The Pakistan government of President Gen. Pervaz Musharraf plans to implement a "four-tier security system" in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) to normalise the security situation there. The four-tier security system has the Frontier Corps at the top, followed by the Frontier Constabulary, Levies and Khasadar Force. All four law enforcement agencies will coordinate with each other. Officials said the new security system would be implemented and monitored by office of the governor of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP).
In July 2009 the government decided to increase the numbers and enhance the professional capacity of khassadars and levies to enable them to hold areas cleared by the military. Some 5,000 additional levies personnel are to be recruited and both forces will receive more pay and better equipment and training. Proper training, equipment and protection will certainly improve their ability to maintain law and order and confront militancy but their new responsibilities must also be balanced by effective oversight. There are currently 6,779 permanent levies and 16,828 permanent khassadars in FATA.